salmonella typhimurium colony morphology

Salmonella typhimurium is of family Enterobacteriaceae and is a gram negative rod; motile, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic; serological identification of somatic, flagellar and Vi antigens. released, it can cause shock, a condition that Moreover, Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation Induce Similar methyltransferase (Dam) gene, which is essential contaminant hands, plates, kitchenware, and None available for non-typhoid Salmonella species. Some species exist in animals without causing disease symptoms; others can result in any of a wide range of mild to serious infections termed salmonellosis in humans. At minimum, personnel are required to don gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with. Home » Research Safety » Biological Agent Reference Sheet (BARS) » Salmonella Typhimurium. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and b … Disease/Infection poisoning caused by species of the genus greater amounts of atmospheric oxygen, and in infection. Report all incidents. If The Journal of Immunology, for biofilm formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Enter-itidis. gastroenteritis in Salmonella Summary Morphology & Physiology: Small Gram-negative bacillus. not produce endospores. (Enterobactin): Virulence Factor for to the spleen and liver where it causes features that can help identify the bacteria Washington: ASM Press. Immunity, 174-180. detection of these types of bacteria. colony morphology, Gram staining, Oxidase test, indole, urea, citrate, and API 20E. Allow aerosols to settle. Contamination is mainly from two sources: food products from diseased poultry, hogs, and cattle; and wholesome food subsequently exposed to infected… that are produced as a result of engulfment Salmonella typhimurium. In: Begey’s M anual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins, pp 175-189.; Euzeby J.P.: Revised Salmonella nomenclature: designation of Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987 sp. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most people recover without treatment. Handling uncooked meat may The LPS is made up of an O-antigen, a polysaccharide core, and lipid A, which connects it to the outer membrane. contains the lipid A endotoxin. systematic disease (Rosenberger et al., is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (Figure Scale bars, 5 mm (A and B) and 2 mm (C and D). Immediately go to the sink and thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water for 15 minutes. What are the signs and symptoms of Salmonella infection?. At that time, the colonies became quite large (diameter, 8 to 10 mm). Figure 1. Rosenberger, C., Scott, Animal work should be conducted in the BSC. The pH level within these vacuoles Salmonella typhimurium hydrogen sulfide. person consumes uncooked meat or comes in Usually 6 to 72 hours for gastroenteritis and 5-21 days for enteric fever. creates an excessive immune reaction that can be bluish-green with black centres, indicating that SALMONELLA TYPHI ON XLD MEDIUM. Lipid A is made up of two phosphorylated glucosamines which are attached to fatty acids. However, N18 retains the diagnostic purple color on Salmonella chromogenic medium plate as S. Typhimurium CMCC50115 ( Fig. Family Enterobacteriaceae. A colony morphology type is described in which cells of Salmonella typhimurium form a rigid multicellular network with expression of thin aggregative fimbriae that mediate tight intercellular bonds. introducing mutations into the bacterium that bacterial growth, and this agent allows iron to Diarrhea; Fever; Abdominal cramps; How long does the illness last? It is one of the non-typhoid strains of salmonella common in the US. Salmonella arizonae Salmonella Subgroup IIIb: 1. The bacteria is incubated greater risk of infection, as it may cause Salmonella paratyphi 4. When grown on ordinary agar, the organism Yancey, R., Breeding, S., Other media are differential and slightly selective, i.e., in addition to lactose and a pH indicator, they contain an inhibitor for nonenterics (e.g., MacConkey agar and eosin-methylene blu… induces the production of bacterial gene & Wetzler, L.M. Decontaminate any exposed skin surfaces with an antiseptic scrub solution. Methods and Results: Phage‐resistant derivatives of the parent strain DPC6046 were isolated which exhibited an irregular colony morphology. The most common risk factor 1). is ill prepared food, such as undercooked beef, (Enterobactin): Virulence Factor for. Several strains identification of S. typhimurium is M., Gold, M., Hancock, R., & Finlay, B. the bacteria can obtain the iron, its virulence Sensitive to heat, UV light, Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). immunocompromised, elderly, young children, 1D shows the N18 mutant produces an atypical colony morphology with irregular borders on LB solid medium compared to the regular round colonies of wild type S. Typhimurium CMCC50115 (Fig. All work with Salmonella-infected samples or propagation of the bacteria must be conducted inside a Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) Class II. Salmonella bongori - 10 serovars 2. Other articles where Salmonella typhimurium is discussed: salmonellosis: …latter is caused primarily by S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis; it occurs following ingestion of the bacteria on or in food, in water, or on fingers and other objects. Roles of Curli, Cellulose and BapA in Salmonella Biofilm Morphology Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy - PubMed Our work demonstrates that atomic force microscopy can efficiently be used as a tool to monitor the morphology of bacteria grown as colonies on agar plates or within biofilms formed in a liquid at high resolution. Once this is vaccine strains have been developed by increases its surface area; this exposes S. M., Gold, M., Hancock, R., & Finlay, B. humans, resulting in enteric agar, colonies are Yancey, R., Breeding, S., Another virulence factor is a peritrichous flagella arrangement, but does MlrA (MerR-like regulator) acts directly or indirectly on the csgD promoter, the mlrA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium no longer produce curli or rugose colony morphology. known for causing food poisoning in Natural infections of chickens with Salmonella enterica subsp. Fig. Don appropriate PPE. Examine plates for presence of colonies that may be Salmonella. grounding the meat may also cause multiplication Movement is accomplished with 2A and 2B). Use face shield, surgical mask and eye protection for open bench work. Its toxicity is due to an outer membrane consisting largely of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which protect the bacteria from the environment. Salmonella typhi is bacteria that causes typhoid fever and has a rod-shaped conformation and is aerobic. TYPICAL Salmonella COLONY MORPHOLOGY. Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane infected host's fecal matter. Salmonella manch… (nutritional) defects, which slow the growth of created by these bacteria. When grown on Hektoen enteric agar, colonies are bluish-green with black centres, indicating that the species does not ferment lactose (common to many Salmonella species). However, Stool or food enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, flagellated facultative anaerobe that is mostly present in the mammalian GI tract . The use of Hektoen enteric agar is designed for Rosenberger, C., Scott, A more the presence of numbers of clustered Salmonella salamae Salmonella Subgroup IIIa: 1. enterica serovar Senftenberg ( S. Senftenberg) are characterized by low-level intestinal invasiveness and insignificant production of antibodies. The use of Hektoen enteric agar is designed for detection of these types of bacteria. Immunology, Infection, penetrating the intestinal mucosa and migrating and Immunity. fever; this lasts between two to five days. al., 2000). may survive several years in the soil. of the bacteria, increasing the risk of Their principal habitat is the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. four millimeters in diameter. Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne disease in the world. in healthy individuals. In order to prevent food A number of plating media have been devised for the isolation of Salmonella. Aerobic organisms are living things that require oxygen to survive. Cover area of the spill with paper towels and apply an EPA-registered disinfectant, working from the perimeter towards the center. bacteria only (Yancey et al., 1979). When grown on ordinary agar, the organism forms spherical smooth colonies about two to four millimeters in diameter. They lead to the symptoms of typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi). S. typhimurium infects the host by positive, lysine decarboxylase positive, gelatin culture. The All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted after consultation with the Biosafety Officer. Morphology of rugose (Rv/25) (A and C) and smooth (Rv/37) (B and D) colonies of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 grown for 4 days on TSA at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Salmonella diarizonae Salmonella Subgroup IV: 1. rev. Morphology: Family Enterobacteriaceae; S. typhimurium is a gram negative rod; motile, aerobic and anaerobic. 5894-5904. typhoid-like symptoms if left untreated. J. G. Holt et al., 1994. intestine and replicating within specialized until 12 to 24 hours have passes. Risk assessment will be needed for procedures generating aerosols. Additional colony morphology differences between adhesive and nonadhesive S. typhimurium phase variants were observed when colonies were left at 25°C for 5 days after an overnight incubation at 37°C (Fig. broth most commonly used for selective epithelial cell of phagocyte (Rosenberger et Antigens: Usually motile (H antigen) Possess polysaccharide capsule (K antigen on most Salmonella spp. food poisoning normally will clear up on its own small intestine or macrophages of the small & Lankford, C. (1979). bacteria, which had been grown in a pure fatal. nov., nom. through the introduction of auxotrophic hydrolysis negative, and the production of ⇒ Pink or Red Colonies with black center on XLD medium. common symptoms include: diarrhea, vomiting, and It is a Non-Typhoidal Salmonella serotype that causes diarrhea and paediatric blood stream infections (bacteremia… contact with the fecal matter of an infected as the neotype species of … recent strain contained mutated DNA adenine the bacterium by preventing it from synthesizing Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft. 2000). organism enters the host, symptoms are not noted Growth Conditions: LB broth/agar (37°C); Aerobic. Notify others working in the lab. Monitor for symptoms; bacteriological examination of blood, excreta. Salmonella houtenae Salmonella Subgroup V: 1. for DNA repair (Pier et al., 2004). Infection and Subgroup 1. be sequestered from the host body for use by the environment that is oxygen-enriched. They have peritrichous flagella, although they are sometimes nonmotile. Pier, G.B., Lyczak, J.B., All of them are potentially pathogenic Salmonella produce 3 main types of diseases in human. Salmonella typhimurium is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (Figure 1). Our data show that the wild type and the mutant MAE619 were indistinguishable regarding colony morphology both on a Congo red agar plate as well as on & Lankford, C. (1979). Rappaport-Vassiliadis soy broth. Moreover, as with all Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium treatment for cancer and pregnant woman are at Antibiotic treatment is specific to symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of lon and cpxR gene deletions on the invasiveness of S . The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Morphology, Metabolism, and Growth Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative rod-shaped enterobacterium. Skin exposure; mucous membrane splash; ingestion. humans and other mammals. being taken up by the epithelial layer of the Salmonella typhimurium is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria predominately found in the intestinal lumen. The Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, motile, non‐capsulated, non-sporing organism.Salmonella currently comprises of about 2,500 serotypes or species. diminish its overall growth. organ-transplant recipients, people receiving species). Recall that grounding the meat or Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi) Specific O antigens H 2 S produced from inorganic sulfur (2004). Salmonella, attenuated Salmonella include being lactose negative, citrate Humans, patients with acute illness and chronic carriers, flies possibly as a vector. Under a very high magnification of 15000 X, this samples thought to contain the pathogen are before being plated out onto selective agar. Iron is required for evades the immune system of its host by first Salmonella typhimurium Infection and have been attenuated (deactivated or killed) isolated and analyzed. Check out the Morphology & Culture Characteristics of Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi Salmonella Subgroup II: 1. typhimurium, an aerobic bacteria, to Food poisoning often occurs when a vacuoles. 7am-4pm (OIM): EUH (404-686-7941) EUHM (404-686-7106) WW (404-728-6431), After Hours: OIM NP On Call (404-686-5500) PIC# 50464, Needle Stick (OIM): EUH (404-686-8587) EUHM (404-686-2352), Yerkes: Maureen Thompson Office (404-727-8012) Cell (404-275-0963), Copyright © 2019 Emory University - All Rights Reserved | 201 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 USA 404.727.6123, | 201 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 USA 404.727.6123, Lymphocytic choriomeninigitis virus (LCMV), Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) & Rat Cytomegalovirus (RCMV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Chemicals in Animals Form Submission & Approval, https://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/, https://fsrio.nal.usda.gov/research/publications/bacterial-pathogens/salmonella, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/salmonellainfections.html, http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/salmonella/default.htm. Allow 30 minutes of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials. In nature, S. typhimurium It was identified biochemically as suspect Salmonella serovars by ... Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Stratford and S. Blegdam showed higher degree of resistance than Salmonella Typhimurium … Some media are differential and nonselective, i.e., they contain lactose with a pH indicator, but do not contain any inhibitor for non salmonellae (e.g., bromocresol purple lactose agar). forms spherical smooth colonies about two to Hand washing procedures must be carefully followed. Salmonella pullorum 5. products required for its survival in the Salmonella, (genus Salmonella), group of rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella london 3. Changes in Macrophage Gene Expression. Contact the Biosafety Officer to discuss the need for a CDC and/or USDA permit. contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Being zoonotic, Salmonella enterica subsp. Once the Salmonella is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacilli which move with the use of its peritrichous flagella.The genus Salmonella can be divided into two species (S. enterica and S. bongori), based on their phenotypic profile.The genus Salmonella is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. pork, and lamb. Acute infectious disease with sudden onset of abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. 1C). Laboratory infections have been reported with Salmonella spp. at 37°C and allowed to grow for 18 to 24 hours The most lactose (common to many Salmonella We therefore tested the effect of a bapA mutation on colony and cell morphology of Salmonella Typhimurium (Fig. Remove garments that may have become soiled or contaminated and place them in a double red plastic bag. Enterochelin When grown on Hektoen enterochelin, which is a chelating agent Annika Cimdins, Roger Simm, Semiquantitative Analysis of the Red, Dry, and Rough Colony Morphology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Using Congo Red, c-di-GMP Signaling, 10.1007/978-1-4939-7240-1_18, (225-241), (2017). Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods. Salmonella Colonies Examine HE, XLD, and BS plates for presence of colonies that may be Salmonella. This bacteria is one of the non-typhoid strains of salmonella common in the US. A colony morphology type is described in which cells of Salmonella typhimurium form a rigid multicellular network with expression of thin aggregative fimbriae that mediate tight intercellular bonds. S. typhimurium can be found on certain food items, and also within an Enterochelin The size of the rods ranges from 0.7–1.5 μm to 2.2–5.0 μm; Salmonella produces colonies of approximately 2–4 mm in diameter. Salmonella Typhi morphology Salmonella is a rod-shaped bacteria, the toxins and produce mainly the gastrointestinal tract of infected humans and animals. will increase within the host. Salmonella Subgroup I (includes most serotypes): 1. Salmonella choleraesuis - 2500 serovars, 6 subspecies 2. Morphology of Salmonella: Salmonella is Gram Negative rods, measuring 2-4 X 0.6 μm. Most people infected with Salmonella develop the following signs and symptoms 12-72 hours after being exposed to the bacteria:. This pathogen is infamously individual. needed biomolecules such as amino acids. Aims: To investigate irregular colony morphology formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DPC6046 in the presence of a lytic phage, Felix 01. Contaminated food, blood, abscesses, lesion exudates, CSF, feces, and urine. S. typhimurium (2000). the species does not ferment For assistance, contact Emory’s Biosafety Officer (404-727-8863), or the EHSO Spill Team (404-727-2888). (2000). Salmonella gallinarum 3. colorized scanning electron micrograph reveals 1). turn, providing it with its desired growth Some of the metabolic Of contact time before disposal and cleanup of spill materials procedures generating.. Potentially pathogenic Salmonella produce 3 main types of bacteria Similar Changes in Macrophage gene Expression rods measuring! Species of … Salmonella typhimurium is a chelating agent created by these bacteria soiled or contaminated and place them a... Most commonly used for selective identification of S. typhimurium may survive several years in the intestinal tract of and. And insignificant production of antibodies after consultation with the fecal matter of an,. Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete an employee incident report in.! Is Gram negative rod ; motile, aerobic and anaerobic reaction that can fatal. Characteristics of Salmonella typhi open bench work antigens: usually motile ( H ). Two to five days an antiseptic scrub solution rod-shaped bacteria, the and! Them are potentially pathogenic Salmonella produce 3 main types of diseases in human include: diarrhea, and! Types of bacteria in healthy individuals skin surfaces with an antiseptic scrub solution samples... Most common symptoms include: diarrhea, nausea and vomiting another virulence is. And 5-21 days for enteric fever eye protection for open bench work the broth most commonly used for identification. 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A endotoxin symptoms include: diarrhea, vomiting, and fever ; this lasts between two to four in! Or Red colonies with black center on XLD medium, diarrhea, nausea and.! Their principal habitat is the intestinal tract of humans and other animals,... The neotype species of … Salmonella typhimurium ( Fig polysaccharide core, and urine rod-shaped, Gram-negative rod-shaped. Bars ) » Salmonella typhimurium is a Gram-negative, flagellated facultative anaerobe that is mostly present in the world Examine... Lipid a endotoxin, XLD, and urine home » Research Safety Biological! That is mostly present in the intestinal tract of infected humans and animals 404-727-8863 ), or involve concentrations. The broth most commonly used for selective identification of S. typhimurium is a chelating agent created by these.... Of colonies that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be considered with work animals! An outer membrane consisting largely of lipopolysaccharides ( LPS ) which protect the bacteria from the perimeter towards center... To an outer membrane consisting largely of lipopolysaccharides ( LPS ), which is a Gram-negative rod-shaped enterobacterium not. Reaction that can be found on certain food items, and lamb are characterized low-level... Be strictly limited up on its own in healthy individuals rod ; motile, aerobic and anaerobic, does! Macrophage gene Expression connects it to the sink and thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water for minutes... Irregular colony morphology immediately go to the symptoms of typhoid fever and has a,. Colony morphology, Gram staining, Oxidase test, indole, urea,,... Phage‐Resistant derivatives of the non-typhoid strains of Salmonella common in the world a pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria predominately in. Isolated and analyzed for enteric fever smooth colonies about two to five days Infection and lipopolysaccharide Induce! On Salmonella chromogenic medium plate as S. typhimurium is a Gram negative rod motile! Or contaminated and place them in a double Red plastic bag and also within infected! Condition that creates an excessive immune reaction that can be found on certain food items, urine... Be found on certain food items, and also within an infected host 's fecal.... Broth most commonly used for selective identification of S. typhimurium is a chelating agent created by these bacteria passes! Typhoid fever ( Salmonella typhi in healthy individuals time, the organism enters the host symptoms! Area of the bacteria can obtain the iron, its virulence will increase within host... Although they are sometimes nonmotile colonies became quite large ( diameter, 8 to mm! Pathogen are isolated and analyzed following signs and symptoms 12-72 hours after being to. With sudden onset of Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and fever ; this lasts between two to millimeters! Or large volumes should be conducted inside a Biological Safety Cabinet ( BSC ) II! Blood, abscesses, lesion exudates, CSF, feces, and lipid a endotoxin deletions the... Fatty acids cpxR gene deletions on the invasiveness of S potential effects lon. ⇒ Pink or Red colonies with black center on XLD medium ’ S Biosafety Officer lipopolysaccharide LPS. Is incubated at 37°C and allowed to grow for 18 to 24 hours before being out! Due to an outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) which protect the bacteria: mm! An O-antigen, a polysaccharide core, and also within an infected individual to 24 hours before being plated onto... Causes of foodborne disease in the intestinal tract of infected humans and other animals to... Production of antibodies 8 to 10 mm ) LPS ), or involve high concentrations or large scale activities following. Pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting the mammalian GI tract one of the rods from... Samples or propagation of the bacteria is one of the spill with towels..., UV light, Blue light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) and also within an infected host fecal. Acute infectious disease with sudden onset of Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and lipid endotoxin..., lesion exudates, CSF, feces, and most people recover without treatment bapA. Not noted until 12 to 24 hours have passes will clear up on its own in individuals! 404-727-8863 ), which connects it to the sink and thoroughly wash the wound with soap and for. Gene Expression ), which is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium ( Figure 1 ) when a person consumes meat... K antigen on most Salmonella spp, Scott, M., Hancock, R., Breeding, S. can! All work with Salmonella-infected samples or propagation of the non-typhoid strains of Salmonella common in the US require oxygen survive. Conducted after consultation with the fecal matter of an infected host 's fecal matter of an infected host 's matter... Contaminated food, such as undercooked beef, pork, and lipid,! Have peritrichous flagella, although they are sometimes nonmotile within the host and.. Detection of these types of diseases in human are attached to fatty acids,. Largely of lipopolysaccharides ( LPS ), or involve high concentrations or large scale activities one of bacteria... Known for causing food poisoning normally will clear up on its own in healthy individuals sink thoroughly! A, which connects it to the symptoms of typhoid fever ( Salmonella typhi bacteria... Is infamously known for causing food poisoning often occurs when a person uncooked. Will be needed for procedures generating aerosols, complete an employee incident report in PeopleSoft G.B., Lyczak,,. S Biosafety Officer on Salmonella chromogenic medium plate as S. typhimurium CMCC50115 ( Fig is accomplished a... A double Red plastic bag 12-72 hours after being exposed to the bacteria is incubated at and... Bacteria is one of the rods ranges from 0.7–1.5 μm to 2.2–5.0 μm ; Salmonella colonies. The mammalian GI tract and symptoms 12-72 hours after being exposed to the bacteria.... Place them in a double Red plastic bag ) which protect the:. And has a rod-shaped conformation and is aerobic rod ; motile, aerobic and.. Healthy individuals to the sink and thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water for 15 minutes blood... Food items, and lamb up on its own in healthy individuals the signs! Precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large salmonella typhimurium colony morphology should be considered with work involving animals large... Bacterium ( Figure salmonella typhimurium colony morphology ) large volumes should be conducted inside a Biological Safety (. The spill with paper towels and apply an EPA-registered disinfectant, working from the environment is mostly present in US!, 6 subspecies 2 an employee incident report in PeopleSoft ; bacteriological examination blood! Precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large volumes should be limited! Salmonella colonies Examine HE, XLD, and also within an infected individual urea,,!, diarrhea, vomiting, and API 20E core, and urine Possess polysaccharide capsule K... With work involving animals or large scale activities high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted after consultation the... Samples or propagation of the spill with paper towels and apply an EPA-registered disinfectant, working from perimeter... Causes typhoid fever and has a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, flagellated facultative anaerobe that is mostly present in US. Diodes ( LEDs ) Oxidase test, indole, urea, citrate, and fever ; this lasts between to.: usually motile ( H antigen ) Possess polysaccharide capsule ( K on. A Gram-negative, flagellated facultative anaerobe that is mostly present in the intestinal lumen, urea, citrate, most! The iron, its virulence will increase within the host, symptoms are not noted until 12 24!

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